Vojna Enciklopedija:Navođenje izvora

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Navođenje izvora, takođe popularno zvano i navođenje literature, važan je deo jednog članka na Vojnoj Enciklopediji, i služi da bi se lakše identifikovali pouzdani izvori na osnovu kojih je napisan članak. U većini slučaja, izvori za specifične informacije dati su u formi fusnota (podbeleški), mada takođe postoje i drugi načini referenciranja u samom tekstu.

Vojno Enciklopedijjsko pravilo o proverljivosti izvora kaže da se moraju navoditi izvori na osnovu kojih je članak napisan, a takođe i koji izvori mogu da se smatraju pouzdanima. Navođenje izvora u samom tekstu neophodno je za svaki materijal koji je sporan ili je vrlo verovatno da može postati sporan, kao i citati, bilo gde u glavnom imenskom prostoru. Ipak, najbolje bi bilo kad bi se za svaku informaciju na Vojnoj Enciklopediji mogao dodati izvor u samom tekstu i takva praksa kod urednika ima veoma veliku podršku. Svaka informacija bez inlajn reference može biti neočekivano dovedena u pitanje i postati sporna, ili čak i uklonjena.

Ova stranica sadrži informacije kako postavljati i kako formatirati inlajn reference.

Iako ima više načina navođenja izvora, u jednom članku mora da se koristi samo jedan metod. Ako članak već ima navedene izvore u tekstu, dodajte nove u skladu sa formatom koji je u tom članku korišćen, ili na stranici za razgovor potrudite se da postignete konsezus pre nego što ga promenite.

Iako je bitno da formatiranje referenci bude kako treba, još je bitnije da navedete što više informacija koje identifikuju izvor. Ako niste vični formatiranju, potrudite se da ostavite što više informacija o izvoru, već će neko drugi da se pobrine za njihovo pravilno formatiranje.

Pismo i jezik izvora[уреди извор]

  • Ako ste koristili izvore na stranom jeziku, onda ih navodite u originalu, jezikom i pismom primerka koji ste koristili. Ako ste koristili prevod nekog izvora, onda ga navodite jezikom i pismom prevoda koji ste koristili.
  • Ako ste koristili izvore na srpskom jeziku, onda ih navodite u pismu u kom je pisan članak na Vojnoj Enciklopediji. Ne postoji nijedan opravdan razlog da se poštuje pismo kojim je štampan izvor.

Zašto je dobro navoditi izvore?[уреди извор]

Navođenjem pouzdanih i proverljivih izvora u Vojno Enciklopedijskom sadržaju, omogućavate drugim urednicima ili čitaocima da provere informaciju koju unosite u članak, i time unapređujete kredibilitet Vojne Enciklopedije tako što time pokazujete da materijal na Vojnoj Enciklopediji nije originalno istraživanje. Takođe pomažete čitaocima da dođu do dodatnih informacija o temi članka; a takođe izbegavate plagijat (tako što navodite izvor odakle potiču vaše reči i ideje).

  • Pruža se mogućnost čitaocu da proveri informaciju, ako to želi;
  • Doprinosi se pouzdanosti članka;
  • Doprinosi se kredibilitetu Vojne Enciklopedije dizanjem nivoa njene pouzdanosti i proverljivosti;
  • Dokazuje se da materijal koji se nudi na Vojnoj Enciklopediji nije originalno istraživanje;
  • Smanjuje se verovatnoća uredničkih sukoba oko sadržaja.
  • Pomažete čitaocima da dođu do dodatnih informacija o temi članka.
  • Izbegavate plagijat (tako što navodite izvor odakle potiču vaše reči i ideje)


Napomena: članci Vojna Enciklopedija ne mogu biti korišćeni kao izvori.

Kako se sve može navesti izvor?[уреди извор]

  • Pun bibliografski podatak podrazumeva navođenje svih neophodnih bibliografskih podataka izvora, i kad je to moguće, i tačnog mesta (npr. broj stranice) gde se u izvoru nalazi određena informacija koja se referencira izvorom, npr.: Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, 1971, str. 1.

Ovakav način navođenja izvora najčešće je korišćen na Vojnoj Enciklopediji i obično se pojavljuje u formi fusnote.

  • Navođenje izvora u samom tekstu ili inlajn referenciranje znači navođenje izvora odmah uz materijal koji se referencira, na primer, na kraju rečenice ili pasusa, i obično u formi fusnote.
  • Opšte navođenje izvora jeste navođenje izvora koji jesu korišćeni za pisanje članka, ali nisu ubačeni u sam tekst, nego su izlistani na kraju članka (obično po azbučnom redu) i pod naslovom Literatura ili Izvori. Izvori u ovakvoj formi obično su navedeni u kratkim i šturim člancima ili u člancima za koje je korišćen samo jedan izvor. Ovako navedeni izvori se takođe mogu pojaviti i u detaljnijim i bolje obrađenim člancima kao dodatak izvorima unetim u sam tekst (inlajn referencama).
  • Kratka inlajn referenca je izvor unesen u sam tekst koji samo identifikuje obično ime autora i mesto u izvoru gde se određena informacija može naći, ali bez ostalih bibliografskih podataka, koji su navedeni opštim navođenjem izvora, pod naslovom Literatura ili Izvori. Na primer: Radić, str. 4. Kratke inlajn reference mogu da se unose u sam tekst vidu fusnota ili u zagradama.
  • Pripisivanje u samom tekstu znači da se u samom članku kao deo teksta (a ne samo kao fusnota) navede izvor za određene informacije. Ovaj sistem se primenjuje naročito kad se navode nečija mišljenja i stavovi, nepouzdane informacije ili nepotvrđene činjenice, kao i citati ili parafraziranje nečijih izjava. Kada se izvor navodi u samom tekstu, ne daju se sve informacije o izvoru — one se obično daju u fusnoti (ili i odeljku „Literatura“) na uobičajen način kao kod inlajn reference. Npr.: Prema rečima Borisa Tadića3... Pogledajte niže Pripisivanje u samom tekstu.

Kada navoditi izvore[уреди извор]

Главни страница: Vojna Enciklopedija:Kada navoditi izvore
Navođenje izora je naročito potrebno
  1. kad se radi o spornom materijalu ili materijalu koji će vrlo verovatno biti osporen — ako se za takav materijal ne može naći pouzdan izvor, treba ga ukloniti iz članka;
  2. kada citirate nekog, uz navodnike ili bez njih, ili poprilično verno parafrazirate izvor;
  3. za izjave o živim osobama, a naročito kad su te tvrdnje pretenciozne ili potencijalno uvredljive. U skladu sa biografijama o živim osobama, tvrdnje ovog tipa za koje ne postoje izvori treba da se uklone iz članka.

Međutim, navođenje izvora nije ograničeno samo na ove situracije. Urednici treba da navode izvore za bilo koju informaciju koju unose u članak.

Izvori se ne moraju navesti
  1. na višeznačnim stranicama (izvori treba da se navode u člancima koje one sadrže);
  2. u uvodima članaka bolje je ne navoditi izvore, pošto uvod predstavlja kratak sažetak onog o čemu će se detaljnije govoriti u članku, i gde bi zapravo te tvrdnje trebalo da budu potponognute navođenjem izvora; ipak, citati i izuzetno kontroverzne tvrdnje treba da budu referencirane, pa čak i u samom uvodu.

Što se slika i ostalih medijskih fajlova tiče, pojedinosti o njihovom poreklu i statusu autorskog prava navedene su na njihovim stranicama za datoteke. Takođe, tekstovi ispod slika treba da budu referencirani kad je to neophodno, kao i bilo koji drugi deo članka. S druge strane, nije neophodno navoditi izvore u alternativnim tekstovima za slike, koji je dostupan kad se mišem pređe preko slike, ili za tekst koji samo identifikuje izvor slike (npr. „Mona Liza (Leonardo da Vinči)“ za Datoteka:Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg.

Opšte navođenje izvora[уреди извор]

Opšte navođenje izvora se odnosi na navođenje pouzdanog izvora koji referencira sadržaj članka ali se nije unosio u sam tekst (tj. nije se koristio za inlajn referenciranje). Opšte navedeni izvori obično su izlistani na kraju članka i pod naslovom Literatura ili Izvori i poređani su azbučnim redom prema prezimenu autora.

Primeri opšteg navođenja izvora dati su nešto niže, u odeljcima Kratke inlajn reference i Referenciranje u zagradi.

Kada se u samom tekstu koriste kratke inlajn reference ili reference u zagradi, u odeljku „Literatura“ ili „Izvori“ treba navesti takođe i pune bibliografske podatke tih izvora koji su korišćeni u samom tekstu, a nije dat njihov pun bibliografski podatak. U kratkim i šturim člancima opšte navođenje izvora može postojati čak i onda kad izvori nisu navedeni u samom tekstu, ili kada je celokupan sadržaj članka zasnovan na samo jednom izvoru. Mana opšteg navođenja izvora u ovom obliku jeste u tome da se gubi integritet odnosa teksta i izvora, osim ako je članak vrlo kratak.

Navođenje izvora u tekstu[уреди извор]

Navođenje izvora u samom tekstu omogućava čitaocu da poveže određenu informaciju u tekstu sa specifičnim izvorom koji potvrđuje dati tekst. Izvori navedeni u samom tekstu se najčešće unose u tekst putem fusnota (dugih ili kratkih), ili referenciranjem u zagradi. Ovaj odeljak opisuje kako upotrebiti bilo koji od ta dva načina, a takođe opisuje i kako napraviti spisak izvora sa kompletnim bibliografskim podacima koji služe kao dodatna informacija i obavezni deo skraćenih inlajn referenci ili referenci datih u zgradi.

Fusnote[уреди извор]

Такође погледајте: Pomoć:Fusnote

Kako dodati izvore u tekstu koristeći fusnote[уреди извор]

Za dodavanje fusnote u tekst, koristite kod <ref>...</ref> na kraju rečenice ili pasusa koji želite da referencirate. Ovako:

  • Pravda je ljudski izum.<ref>Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 1.</ref> Ona...

To će se u tekstu videti ovako:

Takođe će biti neophodno da stvorite i listu fusnota (gde bi se zapravo pojavio tekst reference); za to, pogledajte sledeći odeljak.

Kao što se vidi u gornjem primeru, referenca se dodaje odmah iza znakova interpunkcije, kao što su tačke ili zarezi, bez beline (tj. prostora).

Izvor treba dodati blizu materijala koji referencira, čime se postiže integritet odnosa tekst-izvor. Ako su reč ili izraz izrazito pristrasni, inlajn referenca može da se doda odmah iza reči ili izraza u okviru rečenice, ali obično je sasvim dovoljno da se referenca dodaje na kraju rečenice ili pasusa, i jedino je bitno da bude jasno koji izvor referencira koji deo teksta. Ako tekst u infokutiji ili tabeli sadrži tekst koji treba da se referencira, a u infoboks ili tabelu se ne može ubaciti referenca, onda ona mora da se pojavi u tekstu ispod slike ili u nekom drugom tekstu koji se odnosi na materijal u pitanju.

Kako napraviti spisak fusnota[уреди извор]

The first editor to add footnotes to an article must create a section where the text of those citations appears. This section is placed at or near the bottom of the article and is usually titled "Notes" or "References." For more about the order and titles of sections at the end of an article (which may also include "Further reading" and "External links" sections), see Wikipedia:Footers.

With some exceptions discussed below, citations appear in a single section containing only the <references /> tag or the {{reflist}} template. For example:

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

The footnotes will then automatically be listed under that section heading. Each numbered footnote marker in the text is a clickable link to the corresponding footnote, and each footnote contains a caret which links back to the corresponding point in the text. Scrolling lists, or lists of citations appearing within a scroll box, should never be used. This is because of issues with readability, browser compatibility, accessibility, printing, and site mirroring.[1]

If an article contains a list of general references, this is placed in a separate section, titled (for example) "References". This usually comes immediately after the section(s) listing footnotes, if any. (If the general references section is called "References", then the citations section is usually called "Notes".)

Odvajanje izvora od objašnjenja u fusnotama[уреди извор]

If an article contains both footnoted citations and other (explanatory) footnotes, then it is possible (but not necessary) to divide them into two separate lists, using the grouping feature described in the Grouping footnotes section of the footnotes help page. The explanatory footnotes and the citations are then placed in separate sections, called (for example) "Notes" and "References" respectively.

Izvori koji se ponavljaju[уреди извор]

For multiple use of the same citation or footnote, you can also use the named references feature, choosing a name to identify the citation, and typing <ref name="name">text of the citation</ref>. Thereafter, the same footnote may be reused any number of times by typing just <ref name="name" />. For more details of this syntax, see Multiple references to the same footnote on the footnotes help page.

Izbegavanje konfuzije[уреди извор]

Inlajn reference ponekad mogu da zatrpaju tekst kad se otvori prozor za uređivanje što izuzetno mnogo otežava snalaženje u tekstu. Postoje tri metoda da se ovo izbegne: spisak izlistanih izvora, kratke inlajn reference i reference u zagradama. Inline references can significantly bloat the wikitext in the edit window and can be extremely difficult and confusing. There are three methods that avoid clutter in the edit window: list-defined references, short citations or parenthetical references. (As with other citation formats, articles should not undergo large scale conversion between formats without consensus to do so.)

Citing multiple pages of the same source[уреди извор]

When an article cites many different pages from the same source, most Wikipedia editors use short citations in footnotes. Other methods include short citations in parenthesis and the template {{rp}}.

The use of Wikipedia:en:ibid., Wikipedia:en:Id. (or similar abbreviations) is discouraged, as these may become broken as new references are added (op. cit. is less problematic in that it should refer explicitly to a citation contained in the article; however, not all readers are familiar with the meaning of the terms). If the use of ibid is extensive, use the {{ibid}} template.

Short citations [уреди извор]

Главни страница: Help:Shortened footnotes

Some Wikipedia articles use short citations, giving summary information about the source together with a page number, as in <ref>Smith 2010, p. 1.</ref>. These are used together with general references, which give full details of the sources, but without page numbers, and are listed in a separate "References" section. Short citations are used in articles which apply parenthetical referencing (see below), but they can also be used as footnote citations, as described here.

Forms of short citations used include author-date referencing (APA style, Harvard style, or Chicago style), and author-title or author-page referencing (MLA style or Chicago style). As before, the list of footnotes is automatically generated in a "Notes" or "Footnotes" section, which immediately precedes the "References" section containing the general references. Short citations can be written manually, or by using the {{sfn}} or {{harvnb}} templates. (Note that templates should not be added without consensus to an article that already uses a consistent referencing style.) The short citations and general references may be linked so that the reader can click on the short note to find full information about the source. See the template documentation for details and solutions to common problems. For variations with and without templates, see wikilinks to full references. For a set of realistic examples, see these.

This is how short citations look in the edit box:

The Sun is pretty big,<ref>Miller 2005, p. 23.</ref> but the Moon is not so big.<ref>Brown 2006, p. 46.</ref> The Sun is also quite hot.<ref>Miller 2005, p. 34.</ref>

== Notes ==
{{Reflist}}

== References ==
*Brown, Rebecca (2006). "Size of the Moon," ''Scientific American'', 51(78).
*Miller, Edward (2005). ''The Sun''. Academic Press.

This is how they look in the article:

The Sun is pretty big,[1] but the Moon is not so big.[2] The Sun is also quite hot.[3]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller 2005, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown 2006, p. 46.
  3. ^ Miller 2005, p. 34.


References


  • Brown, Rebecca (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78).
  • Miller, Edward (2005). The Sun. Academic Press.

Shortened notes using titles rather than publication dates would look like this in the article:

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown, "Size of the Moon", p. 46.
  3. ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 34.

When using manual links it is easy to introduce errors such as duplicate anchors and unused references. The script User:Ucucha/HarvErrors will show many related errors. Duplicate anchors may be found by using the Wikipedia:en:W3C Markup Validation Service.

Referenciranje u zagradi[уреди извор]

While most articles use footnote citations as described in the above sections, some articles use a parenthetical referencing style. Here, short citations in parentheses, such as (Smith 2010, p. 1), are placed within the article text itself. Full details of each source used are given in a general reference, e.g. Smith, John. Name of Book. Cambridge University Press, 2010. The general references are listed in alphabetical order, according to the authors' surnames, at the end of the article in a "References" section.

Several forms of short citation are used in Wikipedia; see Short citations above. The inline citation and general reference may be linked using a template (see linking inline and full citations); as with other citation templates, these should not be added to articles without consensus.

This is how it looks in the edit box:

The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005, p. 1), but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 2). The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 3).
== References ==
*Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78).
*Miller, E (2005). ''The Sun'', Academic Press.

This is how it looks in the article:

The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005, p. 1), but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 2). The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 3).

References


  • Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78).
  • Miller, E (2005). The Sun, Academic Press.

Notice that, unlike footnotes, parenthetical references are placed before adjacent punctuation such as commas and full stops.

What information to include [уреди извор]

Listed below is the information which a typical inline citation or general reference will provide, in order to identify the source, assist readers in finding it, and (in the case of inline citations) indicate the place in the source where the information is to be found. (If an article uses parenthetical referencing or short citations, then the inline citations will refer to this information in abbreviated form, as described in the relevant sections above.)

Books[уреди извор]

Citations for books typically include the name of the author(s), the title of the book (in italics), the volume if applicable, the city of publication (optional), the name of the publisher, the year of publication, and the ISBN number (optional), written using the syntax described at WP:ISBN.

Inline citations should additionally give the relevant page number or range of page numbers. Chapter numbers can also be given if appropriate. When specifying a page number, it is helpful to specify the date and edition used, as pagination can change between editions. If the source is an e-book that does not provide page numbers, the citation should include information that enables readers to locate the source material within the e-book, such as chapter number, paragraph number, or a short quote from the source itself.[2]

Citations for individually authored chapters in books typically include the name of the author, the title of the chapter, the name of the book's editor, name of book, publisher, and year. Do not present the information in a way that implies the editor is the author.

When a book is available online through a site such as Internet Archive, Project Gutenberg, Biodiversity Heritage Library, or Google Books, it may be useful to provide a link to the book so readers can view the source. Use the external link syntax, so that clicking on the book title will take the reader to the book. If a specific page in the book is referenced, it may be specified in the link, for example

  • Rawls, John. [http://books.google.com/books?id=kvpby7HtAe0C&pg=PA18 ''A Theory of Justice'']. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 18.

A link to a specific page in a Google Books should only be added if the book is available for preview; such links will not work if the book is only available in snippet view.[3] Like other variations on citation styles, there is no requirement either to add or remove such links.

Journal articles[уреди извор]

Citations for journal articles typically include the name of the author(s), the year and sometimes month of publication, the title of the article (within quotation marks), the name of the journal (in italics), the volume number, issue number and page numbers (article numbers in some electronic journals). It is also helpful to provide DOI, PMID and/or other identifiers where available. Because the Wikipedia is not an academic text, it is better to cite the title of the journal in full, rather than with an academic abbreviation.

Inline citations usually also include specific page numbers, as described above for books.

If the article is available online, use external link syntax to link the article title to the relevant Web page, for example: Carr A, Ory D (2006). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030496 Does HIV cause cardiovascular disease?] ''PLoS Medicine'', 3(11):e496.

Newspaper articles[уреди извор]

Citations for newspaper articles typically include the name of the newspaper (in italics), the date of publication, the byline (author's name) if any, the title of the article (within quotation marks), and the city of publication if not included in the name of the newspaper. Page number(s) are optional.

If the article is available online, link the article's title to the relevant Web address, as described above for journal articles.

Web pages[уреди извор]

Citations for World Wide Web pages typically include the name of the author(s), the title of the article (within quotation marks), the name of the website, the date of publication (if known), the date you retrieved the page, for example Retrieved 2008-07-15. (this is required if the publication date is unknown). Page number(s) can be added if applicable.

Recordings[уреди извор]

Citations for sound recordings typically include the name of the composer(s)/script writer(s), name of the performer(s), title of the song or individual track (in quotation marks), title of the album in italics (if applicable), name of the record label, year of release, medium (for example: LP, audio cassette, CD, MP3 file).

Citations for films, TV episodes, or video recordings typically include the name of the director (and the producer if relevant), names of major performers, the title of the episode in quotation marks (if applicable), the title of the film or TV series (in italics), the name of the studio, the year of release, the medium (for example: film, videocassette, DVD).

Where applicable, an inline citation should also give the approximate time in the recording at which the event or point of interest occurs. When doing this, be as precise as possible about the version of the source that you are citing; for example, movies are often released in different editions or "cuts", and timings may differ between them.

Say where you read it [уреди извор]

Don't cite a source unless you've seen it for yourself. Where you want to cite John Smith, but you've only read Paul Jones who cites Smith, write it like this (this formatting is just an example):

Smith, John. Name of Book I Haven't Seen, Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 1, cited in Paul Jones (ed.). Name of Encyclopedia I Have Seen. Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 2.

However, if you have read Smith's book yourself, you may cite it directly; there is no need to give credit to any sources, search engines, websites, library catalogs, etc., that led you to that book.

Additional annotation[уреди извор]

In most cases it is sufficient for a citation footnote simply to identify the source (as described in the sections above); readers can then consult the source to see how it supports the information in the article. Sometimes, however, it is useful to include additional Wikipedia:en:annotation in the footnote, for example to indicate precisely which information the source is supporting (particularly when a single footnote lists more than one source – see Bundling citations and Text-source integrity below). A footnote may also contain a relevant exact quotation from the source, if this may be of interest (this is particularly useful if the source is not easily accessible).

In the case of non-English sources, it may be helpful to quote from the original text and then give an English translation. If the article itself contains a translation of a quote from such a source (without the original), then the original should be included in the footnote. See Non-English sources in the verifiability policy for more information.

Stil navođenja izvora[уреди извор]

Variation in citation methods [уреди извор]

As described in various sections of this page, different articles use different citation systems, styles and methods. Points of difference include:

On all of these points, Wikipedia does not have a single house style. Editors may choose any option they want; one article need not match what is done in other articles or what is done in professional publications or recommended by academic style guides. However, citations within a given article should follow a consistent style.

It is therefore considered helpful:

  • when adding citations, to try to follow the system and style already in use in the article (if any);
  • to improve existing citations by adding missing information (for example, replacing bare URLs with full bibliographic citations);
  • to replace (or supplement) some or all general references with inline citations;
  • to change existing citations to make them follow a consistent system and style, if there is currently inconsistency within the article. If there is disagreement about which style is best, defer to the style used by the first major contributor or start a discussion on the talk page;

Editors should not attempt to change an article's established citation style merely on the grounds of personal preference, or without first seeking consensus for the change. If you think another system or style would be more appropriate for the article than what is already in use, then propose the change on the talk page, and wait for consensus to emerge.

Handling links in citations[уреди извор]

As noted above under What information to include, it is helpful to include hyperlinks to source material, when available. Here we note some issues concerning these links.

Avoid embedded links[уреди извор]

Детаљније: Wikipedia:Embedded citations

Embedded links to external websites should not be used as a form of inline citation, because they are highly susceptible to linkrot. Wikipedia allowed this in its early years—for example by adding a link after a sentence, like this [http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,14173,1601858,00.html], which looks like this. [1] This is no longer recommended. Raw links are not recommended in lieu of properly written out citations, even if placed between ref tags, like this <ref>[http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,14173,1601858,00.html]</ref>.

Embedded links should never be used to place external links in the body of an article, like this: "Apple, Inc. announced their latest product..."

Convenience links[уреди извор]

A convenience link is a link to a copy of your source on a webpage provided by someone other than the original publisher or author. For example, a copy of a newspaper article no longer available on the newspaper's website may be hosted elsewhere. When offering convenience links, it is important to be reasonably certain that the convenience copy is a true copy of the original, without any changes or inappropriate commentary, and that it does not infringe the original publisher's copyright. Accuracy can be assumed when the hosting website appears reliable. Where several sites host a copy of the material, the site selected as the convenience link should be the one whose general content appears most in line with Wikipedia:Neutral point of view and Wikipedia:Verifiability.

Indicating availability[уреди извор]

If your source is not available online, it should be available in reputable libraries, archives, or collections. If a citation without an external link is challenged as unavailable, any of the following is sufficient to show the material to be reasonably available (though not necessarily reliable): providing an ISBN or OCLC number; linking to an established Wikipedia article about the source (the work, its author, or its publisher); or directly quoting the material on the talk page, briefly and in context.

Links to sources[уреди извор]

For a source available in hardcopy, microform, and/or online, omit, in most cases, which one you read. While it is useful to cite author, title, edition (1st, 2d, etc.), and similar information, it generally is not important to cite a database such as ProQuest, EbscoHost, or JStor (see the list of academic databases and search engines) or to link to such a database requiring a subscription or a third party's login. The basic bibliographic information you provide should be enough to search for the source in any of these databases that have the source. Don't add a URL that has a part of a password embedded in the URL. However, you may provide the DOI, ISBN, or another uniform identifier, if available. If the publisher offers a link to the source or its abstract that does not require a payment or a third party's login for access, you may provide the URL for that link. And if the source only exists online, give the link even if access is restricted.

Sprečavanje i obnavljanje mrtvih veza[уреди извор]

Такође погледајте: Wikipedia:Link rot

To help prevent dead links, persistent identifiers are available for some sources. Some journal articles have a digital object identifier (DOI); some online newspapers and blogs, and also Wikipedia, have permalinks that are stable. When permanent links aren't available, consider archiving the referenced document when writing the article; on-demand web archiving services such as WebCite (http://www.webcitation.org) are fairly easy to use (see pre-emptive archiving).

Dead links should be repaired or replaced if possible. Do not delete a citation merely because the URL is not working today. Follow these steps when you encounter a dead URL being used as a reliable source to support article content:

  1. Confirm status: First, check the link to confirm that it is dead and not temporarily down. Search the website to see whether it has been rearranged.
  2. Check for web archives: Several archive services exist; add one of these URLs if available:
  3. Remove convenience links: If the material was published on paper (e.g., academic journal, newspaper article, magazine, book), then the URL is not necessary. Simply remove it.
  4. Find a replacement source: Search the web for quoted text or the article title. Consider contacting the website/person that originally published the reference and asking them to republish it. Ask other editors for help finding the reference somewhere else. Find a different source that says essentially the same thing as the reference in question.
  5. Remove hopelessly lost web-only sources: If the source material does not exist offline, and if there is no archived version of the webpage (be sure to wait ~24 months), and if you are unable to find another copy of the material, then the dead citation should be removed and the material it supports should be regarded as unverifiable. If it is material that is specifically required by policy to have an inline citation, then please consider tagging it with {{citation needed}}. It may be helpful to future editors if you move the citation to the talk page with an explanation.

Text-source integrity[уреди извор]

When using inline citations, it is important to maintain text-source integrity. The point of an inline citation is to allow readers and other editors to check that the material is sourced; that point is lost if the citation is not clearly placed. The distance between material and its source is a matter of editorial judgment, but adding text without placing its source clearly can lead to allegations of original research, violations of the sourcing policy, and even plagiarism. Editors should exercise caution when rearranging or inserting material to ensure that text-source relationships are maintained.

When new text is inserted into a paragraph make sure that it is clear what facts the inline citations support. For example

The sun is pretty big.[1] The sun is also quite hot.[2]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
  2. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

Do not add facts into a fully cited paragraph or sentence

НеН

The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big.[1] The sun is also quite hot.[3]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
  2. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

without including a source to cover the new information.

ДаY

The sun is pretty big,[1] but the moon is not so big.[2] The sun is also quite hot.[3]

Notes


  1. ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
  2. ^ Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
  3. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

Including too many citations within a sentence may be aesthetically unpleasant:

The sun is the closest[1] star[2] to the planet Earth,[3] but the moon is even closer.[4]

So consider placing them at a more aesthetically pleasant location:

The sun is the closest star to the planet Earth,[1][2][3] but the moon is even closer.[4]

or

The sun is the closest star to the planet Earth, but the moon is even closer.[1][2][3][4]

However this solution brings its own problems:

  • A string of independent citations can also appear aesthetically unpleasant so consider bundling them into one.
  • Identifying which inline citation supports which fact can be more difficult unless additional information is added to the inline citations to explicitly identify what portion of the sentence they cover.
  • Maintenance becomes more difficult. When adding more information to the sentence from yet another source it may be difficult to work out precisely where to place the new citation. If the text is rearranged during a copy edit greater care needs to be taken with rearranging the citations, particularly as the inline citations will be renumbered during their repositioning.

For example if the sentence

The sun is the closest[1] star[2] to the planet Earth,[3] but the moon is even closer.[4]

is rearranged like this:

The moon is closer[1] to planet Earth[2] than the nearest star which is called the sun.[3][4]

It will be fairly easy to check that the citations support the information in the rearranged sentence. This rearrangement is more difficult to check:

The sun is the closest star to the planet Earth, but the moon is even closer.[1][2][3][4]

The moon is closer to planet Earth than the nearest star which is called the sun.[1][2][3][4]

Bundling citations[уреди извор]

Детаљније: Wikipedia:Citation overkill

Sometimes the article is more readable if multiple citations are bundled into a single footnote. For example, when there are multiple sources for a given sentence, and each source applies to the entire sentence, the sources can be placed at the end of the sentence, like this.[4][5][6][7] Or they can be bundled into one footnote at the end of the sentence or paragraph, like this.[4]

Bundling is useful if the sources each support a different portion of the preceding text, or if the sources all support the same text. Bundling has several advantages:

  • It helps readers and other editors see at a glance which source supports which point, maintaining text-source integrity;
  • It avoids the visual clutter of multiple clickable footnotes inside a sentence or paragraph;
  • It avoids the confusion of having multiple sources listed separately after sentences, with no indication of which source to check for each part of the text, such as this.[1][2][3][4]
  • It makes it less likely that inline citations will be moved inadvertently when text is re-arranged, because the footnote states clearly which source supports which point.

When formatting multiple citations in a footnote, there are several layouts available, as illustrated below. Within a given article, only a single layout should be used.

The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.[1]

Notes


    Bullets
  1. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
    • For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
    • For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.
    Line breaks
  2. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
    For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
    For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.
  3. Paragraph
  4. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46. For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

In-text attribution[уреди извор]

In-text attribution is the attribution inside a sentence of material to its source, in addition to an inline citation after the sentence. In-text attribution should be used with direct speech (a source's words between quotation marks); indirect speech (a source's words without quotation marks); and close paraphrasing. It can also be used when loosely summarizing a source's position in your own words. It avoids inadvertent plagiarism, and helps the reader see where a position is coming from. An inline citation should follow the attribution, usually at the end of the sentence or paragraph in question.

For example:

ДаY Wikipedia:en:John Rawls argues that, to reach fair decisions, parties must consider matters as if behind a Wikipedia:en:veil of ignorance.[2]

When using in-text attribution, make sure it doesn't lead to an inadvertent neutrality violation. For example, the following implies parity between the sources, without making clear that the position of Dawkins is the majority view:

НеН Richard Dawkins argues that human beings evolved through natural selection, but John Smith writes that we arrived here in pods from Mars.

Neutrality issues apart, there are other ways in-text attribution can mislead. The sentence below suggests The New York Times has alone made this important discovery:

НеН According to The New York Times, the sun will set in the west this evening.

Simple facts such as this can have inline citations to reliable sources as an aid to the reader, but normally the text itself is best left as a plain statement without in-text attribution:

ДаYBy mass, oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium.[3]

Dealing with unsourced material[уреди извор]

If an article is unreferenced, you can tag it with the {{unreferenced}} template, so long as it is not nonsensical or a biography of a living person, in which case request admin assistance.

  • If a claim is doubtful but not harmful, use the {{citation needed}} template, which will add an inline tag, but remember to go back and remove the claim if no source is produced within a reasonable time.
  • If a claim is doubtful and harmful, remove it from the article. You may want to move it to the talk page and ask for a source, unless it is very harmful or absurd, in which case it should not be posted to the talk page either. Use your common sense.
  • All unsourced and poorly sourced contentious material about living persons must be removed from articles and talk pages immediately. See Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons and Wikipedia:Libel.

Citation templates and tools[уреди извор]

For a comparison of citations using templates with citations written freehand, see Wikipedia:Citing sources/Example edits for different methods.

Citation templates can be used to format citations in a consistent way. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged: an article should not be switched between templated and non-templated citations without good reason and consensus – see Variation in citation methods above.

If citation templates are used in an article, the parameters should be accurate. It is inappropriate to set parameters to false values in order that the template will be rendered to the reader as if it were written in some style other than the style normally produced the template (e.g. MLA style).

Metadata[уреди извор]

Citations may be accompanied by metadata, though it is not mandatory. Most citation templates on Wikipedia use the Wikipedia:en:COinS standard. Metadata such as this allow browser plugins and other automated software to make citation data accessible to the user, for instance by providing links to their library's online copies of the cited works. In articles that format citations manually, metadata may be added manually in a span, according to the COinS specification.

Citation processing tools[уреди извор]

Programming tools[уреди извор]

  • Wikicite is a free program that helps editors to create citations for their Wikipedia contributions using citation templates. It is written in Wikipedia:en:Visual Basic .NET, making it suitable only for users with the Wikipedia:en:.NET Framework installed on windows, or, for other platforms, the Mono alternative framework. Wikicite and its source code is freely available; see the developer's page for further details.
    • Wikicite+ is a program based on the original Wikicite source code. It features extra validation, bug fixes, additional cite templates (such as cite episode) as well as tools for stub sorting and more. It is also available for free under the Apache License 2.0 and is open source.
  • Wikipedia:en:User:Richiez has tools to automatically handle citations for a whole article at a time. Converts occurrences of {{pmid XXXX}} or {{isbn XXXX}} to properly formatted footnote or Harvard-style references. Written in ruby and requires a working installation with basic libraries.
  • pubmed2wiki.xsl an XSL stylesheet transforming the XML output of Wikipedia:en:PubMed to Wikipedia refs.
  • RefTag by Apoc2400 creates a prefilled {{cite book}} template with various options from a Google Books URL. The page provides a bookmarklet for single-click transfer.
  • wikiciter web interface, does google books, pdf files, beta.

Citation export tools[уреди извор]

You can insert a link beside each citation in Wikipedia, allowing you to export the citation to a reference manager such as Wikipedia:en:EndNote. To install the script just add the following line to Special:MyPage/skin.js (applies to the currently selected skin) or Special:MyPage/common.js (applies to all skins)"

importScript("User:Smith609/endnote.js");

Then save the page and follow the instructions at the top of that page to bypass your browser's cache.

Vidi još[уреди извор]

How to cite
Citation problems
Other


Napomene[уреди извор]

  1. See this July 2007 discussion for more detail on why scrolling reference lists should not be used.
  2. The {{Cite book}} template can be used to pinpoint the source material within an e-book, by utilizing one or more of the following parameters:
    • |type= to indicate the e-book device and version; example: |type=Kindle 3
    • |at= to indicate the location; example: |at=Location 4337-42
    • |at= to indicate the chapter, section and/or paragraph; example: |at=chapter 1, section 2, para. 3.
    • |quote= to include a short, relevant quote.
  3. See the October 2010 RfC on linking to Google Books.

Preporučena literatura[уреди извор]

Reference[уреди извор]